How Is North Korea Getting Uranium

Background Information

North Korea has long been suspected of acquiring uranium – either from its own mining activities, imports from other countries, or both. The exact origin of the uranium is uncertain, but the United Nations International Atomic Energy Agency recently estimated that North Korea has enough uranium for up to three nuclear weapons. This has alarmed many, given the country’s history of nuclear weapon tests and the government’s lack of transparency. Experts worry that if North Korea is able to confirm its uranium stockpile, it could potentially use nuclear weapons to its advantage.

Uranium Mining

North Korea’s primary source for uranium is the nation’s two uranium mines. It is believed that North Korea is currently mining roughly 3,000 tonnes of uranium a year, primarily from the Pyongsan mine in South Hwanghae Province and the Kumchon mine in North Hamgyong Province. North Korea has also been mining uranium ore from several sites in the Ryanggang-do region. Expert analysis of satellite imagery has revealed that several of the sites seem to be abandoned, but there is still enough evidence to suggest that uranium is being extracted at a rate of around 500-700 tonnes a year.

Uranium Imports

While North Korea does have a small uranium mining industry of its own, experts believe that the majority of the country’s uranium is being imported from other countries. It is widely believed that North Korea is importing uranium from Iran. Reports from 2019 showed that North Korea had allegedly paid over $700 million for uranium from Iran in exchange for North Korean weapons and missile components. It is unclear how much uranium Iran has actually supplied to North Korea, but it is believed to be enough to fuel a few nuclear warheads.

Contraband Uranium

It has also been reported that North Korea is smuggling uranium from various other countries in order to stock their uranium stockpile. This uranium is most likely coming from China, Russia, and Kazakhstan – although it is likely that the uranium is being routed through other countries in an attempt to hide its origin. Reports state that the uranium is being smuggled in on ships, trucks, and planes – often in unmarked boxes and containers – in order to mask its true origin.

Analysis and Opinions from Experts

Nuclear experts are divided on how to handle the situation. Some view it as an opportunity to bring North Korea to the negotiating table, while others worry that allowing North Korea to expand its uranium stockpile unchecked could lead to further nuclear proliferation.
Dr. Kwon Tae-gyu, a security expert at the Korea Institute of Defense Analyses, believes that “North Korea is actively looking for ways to improve its uranium stockpile and is likely to use the uranium it acquires as part of its nuclear weapon program. It is important that we take steps to limit North Korea’s access to uranium, both through mining and imports.”
Professor Park Young-jin of the Graduate School of International Studies, Seoul National University noted that, “while North Korea is technically the sovereign nation of its own people, we must not forget that it still answers to the international community. We must not allow North Korea to expand its uranium stockpile without consequences. This is a necessary step in order to prevent a regional arms race.”

International Response

In response to North Korea’s apparent stockpiling of uranium, the United Nations Security Council held an emergency meeting in March of 2018. The goal of the meeting was to discuss possible strategies for dealing with the situation, and it was decided that all countries should work together to ensure that North Korea does not receive any more uranium.
In addition, the United States and its allies are pressing for a complete ban on North Korean uranium imports. The US has stated that it will not tolerate any country allowing North Korea to obtain uranium and that it will take measures to punish any country that allows North Korea to access uranium in any form.

Sanctions and Impacts

In line with the UN Security Council’s decision, many countries have imposed sanctions and other economic measures against North Korea in an effort to pressure the country to cease its uranium acquisition efforts. As expected, these sanctions have had a serious impact on North Korea’s economy and have contributed to an already dire humanitarian situation.
In spite of these sanctions, North Korea appears committed to acquiring uranium, as evidenced by its continued smuggling efforts. This is concerning, as experts estimate that North Korea could possess enough uranium to produce four to five nuclear weapons by the year 2020.

Influence of Other Nations

There is also evidence that North Korea is attempting to use other countries to further its uranium acquisition efforts. For example, North Korea has allegedly supplied China and Russia with nuclear technology in exchange for uranium. It is believed that North Korea is using covert methods to transfer uranium from China and Russia into North Korea.
Experts believe that North Korea is actively working to increase its uranium stockpile in order to gain leverage in the international community. This has been made worse by the fact that North Korea continues to refuse to cooperate with the International Atomic Energy Agency, which is responsible for monitoring the country’s nuclear activities.

North Korea’s Nuclear Weapons Program

North Korea has been developing its nuclear weapons program since the 1980s and has conducted several nuclear tests over the years. The continued development of its nuclear arsenal, along with its refusal to cooperate with the international community, has raised concerns over its true intentions.
Experts believe that North Korea is eager to use its uranium stockpile as leverage in negotiations with other countries and that it could potentially use its nuclear weapons to achieve its geopolitical goals. This is a troubling prospect considering North Korea’s long history of aggressive military posturing and its unwillingness to cooperate with diplomatic efforts.

International Diplomacy

Given the potential repercussions of a nuclear-armed North Korea, the international community must take steps to address the situation before it is too late. It is essential that the international community assess the situation and develop a strategy for dealing with North Korea’s burgeoning uranium stockpile.
The United States, as well as other key countries in the region, must work together to ensure that North Korea does not acquire any more uranium and that its existing uranium does not fall into the wrong hands. In addition, the US must continue to engage in diplomatic efforts in order to ensure that North Korea does not use itsnuclear weapons to further its own political interests.

Incentives and Engagement

In order to effectively address the problem of North Korea’s uranium stockpile, the international community must focus on finding ways to engage with the North Korean government. While sanctions and other punitive measures are necessary to a certain extent, it is also important to incentivize North Korea to comply with international norms.
The US and its allies should offer North Korea incentives such as reduced economic sanctions and greater access to international markets if it agrees to halt its uranium acquisition efforts. In addition, the US should continue to pursue diplomatic efforts in order to resolve the disputes between the two countries and try to find a peaceful solution to the situation.

Military Action

While diplomatic efforts are essential in addressing the issue of North Korea’s uranium stockpile, it is also important to consider the possibility of military action. Currently, the US is continuing to deploy troops and other military assets to the Korean peninsula in order to deter North Korea from further aggression.
In addition, the US and its allies are reportedly considering a pre-emptive strike against North Korean nuclear facilities if it is deemed necessary. Such a strike could be devastating for the country and would undoubtedly result in a significant escalation of tensions in the region. Therefore, it is important that all military options be considered carefully and only used as a last resort.


North Korea’s uranium stockpile poses a serious threat to the international community, both in terms of potential nuclear proliferation and rising tensions in the region. It is essential that the international community take steps to address this issue before it gets out of hand, and that all potential solutions be thoroughly explored. Diplomatic actions, economic sanctions, and military measures must all be considered and discussed in order to find a peaceful solution to the problem.

Cassie Grissom is an American journalist and author living in Seoul, South Korea. She has been studying the Korean peninsula since 2011, and her work focuses on understanding human rights issues in North Korea. In addition to her work as an author, Cassie is an active advocate for human rights in North Korea. She regularly shares stories about life in North Korea with international audiences to raise awareness of the plight of its citizens.

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